Managers plan, direct, coordinate and evaluate the overall activities of enterprises, governments and other organizations, or of organizational units within them, and formulate and review their policies, laws, rules and regulations. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the fourth ISCO skill level, except for Sub-major Group 14: Hospitality, Retail and Other Services Managers, for which skills at the third ISCO skill level are generally required.
Tasks performed by managers usually include: formulating and advising on the policy, budgets, laws and regulations of enterprises, governments and other organizational units; establishing objectives and standards and formulating and evaluating programmes and policies and procedures for their implementation; ensuring appropriate systems and procedures are developed and implemented to provide budgetary control; authorizing material, human and financial resources to implement policies and programmes; monitoring and evaluating performance of the organization or enterprise and of its staff; selecting or approving the selection of staff; ensuring compliance with health and safety requirements; planning and directing daily operations; representing and negotiating on behalf of the government, enterprise or organizational unit managed in meetings and other forums.
Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
11 Chief Executives, Senior Officials and Legislators
12 Administrative and Commercial Managers
13 Production and Specialized Services Managers
14 Hospitality, Retail and Other Services Managers
In distinguishing between managers classified in Major Group 1: Managers, and supervisors, classified in other major groups, it should be noted that both managers and supervisors may plan, organize, coordinate, control and direct the work done by others. In addition, managers usually have responsibility for and make decisions about: the overall strategic and operational direction of a business or organizational unit (for example about the kinds, quantity and quality of goods to be produced); budgets (how much money is to be spent and for what purposes); and the selection, appointment and dismissal of staff. Supervisors may provide advice and assistance to managers on these matters, especially in relation to staff selection and dismissal, but do not have authority to make decisions.
It should be noted that it is not a necessary condition that managers have responsibility for all three of strategic and operational direction, budgets and staff selection and dismissal. The degree of autonomy they exercise may also vary. The critical difference is that supervisors are responsible only for the supervision of the activities of other workers, whereas managers have overall responsibility for the operations of an organizational unit.
Narrower ISCO groups